Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes. This occurs in spaceflight during ascent and atmospheric reentry, glaciology, medicine, and passive fire protection.
Aerodynamic characteristics - a set of dependencies of aerodynamic coefficients and their derivatives, and distributed loads on the characteristic parameters defining the mode of flight, the aircraft configuration and its orientation with respect to the chosen coordinate system. The aerodynamic characteristics (lift, aerodynamic drag, aerodynamic efficiency, the longitudinal and lateral static stability, rotational derivatives, the effectiveness of controls, takeoff and landing characteristics, etc.) are the main source of data for the design of the aircraft.
Aeronautical fuel - part of the stock of fuel on board of the aircraft by the beginning of runway, dressed in excess of the estimated amount needed for the flight from the airport of departure to the destination aerodrome. It is intended to ensure the safe completion of the flight with a landing at the destination aerodrome or at reserve one, taking into account the adverse circumstances.
Air Code - a single piece of legislation containing the rules of law governing the operation of aircraft and the use of the airspace for aircraft operations.
Air law - a set of legal rules governing the relations arising in connection with the use of airspace. Includes domestic and international law.
Air transport - one of the modes of transport, that provides transportation of passengers, baggage, cargo, mail, using the aircraft. It consists of network transport airlines (with the fleet of aircraft), airports (with the system of airport facilities and means of mechanization, navigation, communications and air traffic control), as well as institutions, organizations and businesses that provide training and retraining of personnel, maintenance and repair of aircraft.
Airbus - multi-seat passenger aircraft with a simplified type of passenger service.
The aircraft (AC) - the aircraft that is supported in the atmosphere due to its interaction with the air other than interaction with air against the Earth's surface. Missiles, hovercraft, weather balloons, unmanned balloons without a payload (including children's balloons) are not considered aircraft.
Aircraft weight - the performance of an airplane is influenced by its weight and overloading it will cause serious problems.
Airport - transport enterprise which is regularly sending and receiving passengers, baggage, cargo and mail, organization and maintenance of aircraft.
Altimeter - instrument for measuring height.
Amortization of landing gear
Amortization of landing gear - a system that provides energy absorption, reducing the load transmitted from the landing gear on the construction of aircraft landing at impact and driving on uneven airfield.
Anemometer - a device for measuring air velocity.
Anemorumbometer - a device for simultaneous measurement of velocity and wind direction.
Antibuffering - an increase of the amplitude of angular oscillations of the aircraft relative to the center of mass at the expense of additional aerodynamic forces and moments arising from the change of flow around its bearing surface. Related to the occurrence of flow separation on the wing, empennage, rebuild the unstable vortex structures and systems to shocks bearing surfaces.
Atmospheric turbulence - one of the basic properties of Earth's atmosphere, consisting of a chaotic change in pressure, temperature, wind speed and direction. Due to topographic heterogeneity of the Earth's surface, its thermal properties, leading to uneven in space heating (cooling), the peculiarities of the vertical profiles of temperature and air velocity.
Automatic Drain Valve
Automatic Drain Valve - automatically releases the air, serves to reduce the resistance of the liquefied gas in the filter.
Aviation - operation of heavier-than-air aircraft and related activities. A general term including the science and technology of flight through the air.
Compressor shaft - a shaft connected to the compressor's mpeller and passes through them the mechanical energy supplied by the turbine, the air passing through the compressor, for air compression. Compressor shaft is one of the main details of the compressor.
Flight path - the distance passed by the aircraft through the air.
Greenwich Time (time worldwide) - a local civil time at Greenwich. By the time of Greenwich in the astronomical almanacs are given the coordinates of celestial bodies and other data. Greenwich Time is also known as global or universal.
Nonstationary assembly - assembly of the aircraft or its parts, sections and units without the use of stationary equipment.
Perturbation (in aerodynamics) - cause of the disturbed motion of the aircraft. The perturbation can be created intentionally or appears accidentally (the action of the pilot, a gust of wind, dropping cargo, etc.). The perturbation may be a one-time (pulse) or periodic.
Primary air - air entering the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and aircraft turbine engine providing necessary mixture for combustion.
The runway - part of the airfield, as a working area of the runway. It is a specially prepared and equipped with a strip of land surface or unpaved, intended for takeoff and landing aircraft.
Second flight regimes
The second flight regimes - regimes of flight at speeds less than the most favorable, corresponding to the maximum aerodynamic efficiency.
Secondary air - the air, mingled with the products of combustion in the combustion chamber of gas turbine aircraft engine. The main purpose of the secondary air - lower the temperature of the too hot combustion products before the turbine aircraft engine. In addition, the secondary air is used to create the desired temperature of gas field before the turbine nozzle assembly, cooling the flame tube (flame tubes) combustion chambers, as well as to create a heat-insulating layer between the zone of high temperatures and relatively cold outer casing (housing) of the combustion chamber.
Takeoff and landing performance
Takeoff and landing performance - a set of performance characteristics of aircraft to ensure safe takeoff and landing performance and determine the requires size of the airfield. It is included for the aircraft : the length of the run, separation speed, takeoff distance, landing distance, landing speed, path length of the runway.
Variometer(also known as a rate of climb and descent Indicator (RCDI) - rate-of-climb indicator, vertical speed indicator (VSI), or vertical velocity indicator (VVI)) is one of the flight instruments in an aircraft used to inform the pilot of the near instantaneous (rather than averaged) rate of descent or climb. It can be calibrated in knots, feet per minute (101.333 ft/min = 1 kn) or metres per second, depending on country and type of aircraft.
Vibration combustion - the kind of unstable combustion, characterized by self-excited oscillations of gas in the engine combustion chamber. The reason - the sensitivity of the mix-, vortex formation and burning to changes in the gas chamber. Accompanied by a sharp increase in noise, a blowout, the destruction of the camera, failure of individual components and assemblies engine.
Vinyl liner - an organic safety glass, used in aircraft cockpit glazing. Vinyl liner is made from vinyl resins, in particular vinyl acetate, solid polymers which are transparent, glassy mass.
Weight calculation - when the detail design drawings are complete, the weight engineer can calculate the weight of each and every part--thousands of them--and add them all up...and indeed this is eventually done.
Wing heaviness - the intensity and direction is determined by the asymmetry of the aircraft relative to the vertical plane and a decrease in the effectiveness of lateral control, due to insufficient stiffness of the wing at high velocity gradients, or the influence of the compressibility of air at low.